Some weeks ago in Woodlovers we went through the concept of the carbonized wood in traditional Japanese architecture. Today we look back at Japan, fascinated by its amazing assemblages. In 1989, Torashichi Sumiyoshi and Gengo Matsui published Wooden Joints in classical Japanese Architecture, which is compulsory reading to get to know this fascinating technique. In...
Some weeks ago in Woodlovers we went through the concept of the carbonized wood in traditional Japanese architecture. Today we look back at Japan, fascinated by its amazing assemblages.
The whole structural system of this building has been entirely made of wood, including the joint system. The usual steel joints have been substituted by wooden beech plugs that accompany the load-bearing transmission.
I don't think sketch blocks will work because projected and derived geometry cannot be part of a sketch block, and that is pretty integral to making these joints, and having them scale perfectly with changes to the dimensions of the wood (well, as far as I know.).
Is there a reason it needs to be I mean, I understand that's probably best-practice, but in the case of single wood joints I don't really see the value in it. Of course, I also don't really have a reason for NOT doing it.
@TheJoinery__jp is the Twitter account of this artist, a young Japanese man who works by day in automobile marketing. At the time of writing, he has created GIF illustrations of 81 traditional wood joints. The project is ongoing, as the creator continues to seek new information about this fascinating tradition from books, magazines and other archival sources.
This is a more complex joint than the previous hip corner joints. The structure is composed of two log girders, joined in a Tec-shape and of a log girder nose. The girder nose (B 1) gives the assembly a balanced look. The shorter girder (B-2) seems to form a single continuous member with the girder nose. To accentuate this effect the nose (B-l) and the short girder (B2) arc cut out of the same piece of wood. This assemblage is extremely complex. First the nose (B-l) is inserted into girder A. After the tenon has gone through, the nose is rotated at 90 degrees and pushed toward A in its final position. Afterward, the short girder B-2 is assembled onto girders A and B-l.
An experimental evaluation of mixed mode fracture tests conducted on adhesively bonded wood specimens using a dual actuator load frame is presented. This unit allows the fracture mode mixity to be easily varied during testing of a given specimen, providing improved consistency, accuracy, and ease of testing over a range of loading modes. Double cantilever beam (DCB) type specimens made of southern yellow pine (Pinus spp.) wood substrates bonded with a commercially available one part polyurethane adhesive were tested over a wide range of mode mixities from pure mode I to pure mode II. The critical strain energy release rate (SERR) values were calculated from the measured load, displacement, and crack length data, in combination with material properties and specimen geometric parameters, and compared on a versus fracture envelope plot. Mean quasi-static fracture energy values were calculated to be 390 J m-2 and 420 J m-2 for mode I and mode II fracture, respectively. For various mixed mode phase angles, the critical SERR values were partitioned into mode I and mode II components. In mixed mode loading conditions the cracks were typically driven along the interface, which resulted in lower total fracture energy values when compared with those measured under pure mode I loading conditions. A drop in measured fracture energy of approximately 45% was observed with mode mixity phase angles as small as 16, implying that engineering designs based on results from the popular mode I DCB test could be nonconservative in some situations. Fracture surfaces obtained at different mode mixities are also discussed. An improved understanding of fracture behavior of adhesively bonded wood joints under mixed mode loading through generation of fracture envelopes could lead to improved designs of bonded wood structures.
The authors of both books see the emergence of modern architecture as a deviation from an orientation which was comprehensible in light of the physical nature of human beings and of their basic cultural milieu. We are missing that sense of order and understanding which we have for the classical structures and earlier building of this century. People do not feel a sense of caring or identification with the malls of today or some of the high rise apartments being built. The orientation which we have identified with is missing in most public buildings and some private dwellings. Indeed, it is often difficult to distinguish the front or back of contemporary buildings or where the main entrance is located. Thus the classical element of the grand entrance of a structure is now muddled and obscured. Rapaport finds it difficult to categorize much of the architecture in the new vernacular since we now prize originality over all else. Each architectural endeavor is a chance to be totally different from what has gone before. This leaves people in cold feeling buildings which radiate nothing but sterility and isolation.
It may seem contradictory after setting out to discover the architecture of the masses to embrace Classicism which connotes large expansive and important buildings. I would suggest that Classicism fits right into the previously discussed notion of tradition and the self in architecture. The owning of a home has always been an important part of the American Dream. Home ownership is symbolic of the individualism and privacy that Americans seek. As one who has been perusing the home market in recent months, I can state that most of the newer homes are turning to classical and other traditional forms of architecture and incorporating elements of these within.
The whole column was built of stone blocks precisely fitted together. The blocks were fitted together so that they would have smooth joints. If necessary metal dowels or cramps were used. Columns were built in sections called drums. The roof was usually made of terra cotta tiles supported by wooden rafters and wooden beams were used for the ceiling.8
I hope that the reader can now understand why Classical architecture was chosen as a starting point. The few elements that encompass it can be explained and illustrated, and there are numerous examples of which can be found in our city. Certainly the architecture of our democracy was based on the Greek ideal so that a student need look no further than Washington D.C. to see classical architecture in America. There is not enough space in this paper to go around the world extrapolating classicism in other regions or its antithesis. What is being offered is a framework to start a discussion with.
In discussing Egyptian architecture Jones found it peculiar to this style that the more ancient the monument the more perfect the art. In seeing modern displays of what remains of Egyptian art he saw it in a declining state. The purest Egyptian art was that early style which rose from central Africa (Ethiopia). Usually there is a rapid ascent from infancy to a peak level. When there is a mixture with other foreign influence a decline becomes evident. Egyptian art seems to have no infancy period and there is no evidence of foreign influence. They took their inspiration from nature. The lotus and papyrus growing on the banks of the Nile came to symbolize food for body and mind. Feathers of rare birds were carried before the king as symbols of sovereignty. The palm branch decorated temples, clothing, articles of luxury and of daily use from wooden spoons to boats.13
Faculty research interests include architecture and urbanism of modern Europe and America, architecture and epistemology, historiography, architectural theory, urbanism in pre-modern Europe, late medieval and Renaissance architecture, classical and medieval Islamic architecture and urbanism. 781b155fdc